Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition gene database (dbEMT) Home
Pediatric cancer database
General information | Literature | Expression | Regulation | Mutation | Interaction

Basic Information

Gene ID





10q23del|BZS|DEC|GLM2|MHAM|MMAC1|PTEN1|TEP1;phosphatase and tensin homolog;PTEN;phosphatase and tensin homolog


MMAC1 phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10|mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1|phosphatase and tensin-like protein|phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN



Gene type




Prostate epithelial Pten/TP53 loss leads to transformation of multipotential progenitors and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

Loss of PTEN and loss of TP53 are common genetic aberrations occurring in prostate cancer. PTEN and TP53 contribute to the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in prostate progenitors, presumptive tumor initiating cells for prostate cancer. Here we characterize the transformed phenotypes resulting from deletion of the Pten and TP53 tumor suppressors in prostate epithelium. Using the PB-Cre4(+)Pten(fl/fl)TP53(fl/fl) model of prostate cancer, we describe the histological and metastatic properties of primary tumors, transplanted primary tumor cells, and clonal cell lines established from tumors. Adenocarcinoma was the major primary tumor type that developed, which progressed to lethal sarcomatoid carcinoma at approximately 6 months of age. In addition, basal carcinomas and prostatic urothelial carcinomas were observed. We show that tumor heterogeneity resulted, at least in part, from the transformation of multipotential progenitors. CK8+ luminal epithelial cells were capable of undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in vivo to sarcomatoid carcinomas containing osseous metaplasia. Metastasis rarely was observed from primary tumors, but metastasis to lung and lymph nodes occurred frequently from orthotopic tumors initiated from a biphenotypic clonal cell line. Androgen deprivation influenced the differentiated phenotypes of metastases. These data show that one functional consequence of Pten/TP53 loss in prostate epithelium is lineage plasticity of transformed cells.CI - Published by Elsevier Inc.

[PTEN impedes EMT during chick embryo gastrulation].

PTEN has been considered as one of the important anti-oncogenes, which possesses very wide biological activities. Endogenous PTEN genes begin to express in epiblast during chick embryo gastrulation, and then the expression extends to neural plate and mesoderm. This suggests that PTEN might be involved in cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation during early embryo development. In this study, we employed in vivo approach to explore if endogenous PTEN participates in EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) in early chick embryo. PTEN was initially detected to highly express in primitive streak during chick gastrulation, in which EMT occurs, and subsequently mesoderm structure such as somites etc. Then, overexpression of both Wt PTEN-GFP and Wt PTEN-GFP positive transplantation of primitive streak resulted in cell accumulation in primitive streak in the development hereafter, indicating that EMT was blocked in both of our assays, either whole embryo transfection of Wt PTEN-GFP or transplantation of Wt PTEN-GFP primary streak tissue. Finally down-regulation of PTEN gene in one side using PTEN siRNA led to reduce the more number of mesoderm cells in PTNE siRNA side than normal side, which suggests that PTEN gene is probably involved in regulating EMT process in development of early embryonic gastrulation.

Lkb1 and Pten synergise to suppress mTOR-mediated tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the mouse bladder.

The AKT/PI3K/mTOR pathway is frequently altered in a range of human tumours, including bladder cancer. Here we report the phenotype of mice characterised by deletion of two key players in mTOR regulation, Pten and Lkb1, in a range of tissues including the mouse urothelium. Despite widespread recombination within the range of epithelial tissues, the primary phenotype we observe is the rapid onset of bladder tumorigenesis, with median onset of approximately 100 days. Single deletion of either Pten or Lkb1 had no effect on bladder cell proliferation or tumour formation. However, simultaneous deletion of Lkb1 and Pten led to an upregulation of the mTOR pathway and the hypoxia marker GLUT1, increased bladder epithelial cell proliferation and ultimately tumorigenesis. Bladder tissue also exhibited characteristic features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, with loss of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and the tight junction protein ZO-1, and increases in the mesenchymal marker vimentin as well as nuclear localization of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator Snail. We show that these effects were all dependent upon mTOR activity, as rapamycin treatment blocked both EMT and tumorigenesis. Our data therefore establish clear synergy between Lkb1 and Pten in controlling the mTOR pathway within bladder epithelium, and show that loss of this control leads to the disturbance of epithelial structure, EMT and ultimately tumorigenesis.

The polycomb group protein Bmi-1 represses the tumor suppressor PTEN and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.

The polycomb group protein B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is dysregulated in various cancers, and its upregulation strongly correlates with an invasive phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas. However, the underlying mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated invasiveness remains unknown. In the current study, we found that upregulation of Bmi-1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression reversed EMT and reduced motility. Furthermore, upregulation of Bmi-1 led to the stabilization of Snail, a transcriptional repressor associated with EMT, via modulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmi-1 transcriptionally downregulated expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN in tumor cells through direct association with the PTEN locus. This in vitro analysis was consistent with the statistical inverse correlation detected between Bmi-1 and PTEN expression in a cohort of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies. Moreover, ablation of PTEN expression partially rescued the migratory/invasive phenotype of Bmi-1-silenced cells, indicating that PTEN might be a major mediator of Bmi-1-induced EMT. Our results provide functional and mechanistic links between the oncoprotein Bmi-1 and the tumor suppressor PTEN in the development and progression of cancer.

Involvement of Pin1 induction in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.

Acquisition of resistance to tamoxifen is a critical therapeutic problem in breast cancer patients. epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where cells undergo a developmental switch from a polarized epithelial phenotype to a highly motile mesenchymal phenotype, is associated with invasion and motility of cancer cells. Here, we found that tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR)-MCF-7 cells had undergone EMT, as evidenced by mesenchymal-like cell shape, downregulation of basal E-cadherin expression, and overexpression of N-cadherin and vimentin, as well as increased Snail transcriptional activity and protein expression. Given the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in Snail-mediated E-cadherin deregulation during EMT, we examined the role of these signaling pathways in the EMT of TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Both Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3beta (inactive form) and NF-kappaB reporter activity were increased in TAMR-MCF-7 cells, as was activation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog depleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)-phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase-Akt pathway. Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, was overexpressed in TAMR-MCF-7 cells, and Snail transcription and the expression of EMT markers could be decreased by Pin1 siRNA treatment. These results imply that Pin1 overexpression in TAMR-MCF-7 cells is involved in the EMT process via PTEN-PI3-kinase-Akt-GSK-3beta and/or GSK-3beta-NF-kappaB-dependent Snail activation, and suggest the potential involvement of Pin1 in EMT during breast cancer development.